We take good care of concrete. Concrete can start to look rough and pitted, we see this in New England all the time. This happens because water penetrates the concrete because concrete is porous. When the water penetrates, and then the concrete freezes, it can pop some of the concrete a little bit. That's when you see that rough spalling going on. We also use salts or materials that melt the ice, and the water penetrates the concrete and freezes again. We see this quite often. Spalling is concrete that absorbs some of the moisture, freezes, and then it basically pops, breaks, and chips off.
To fix it, we have to get any concrete off that is loose or not solid. We clean it out and then put in what we call a "milk," which is an adhesive. Then we put some specialty masonry material back on it. I then recommend spraying it with a crystallized quartz based material that goes into the pores of the concrete. We don't only spay it on the space we repaired, but also on the steps or on the side of the foundation, or in the garage on the sides. This does not let the water penetrate.